How can we forecast, prevent, and (when necessary) mitigate the harmful effects of malicious uses of AI?
This is the question posed by a 100-page report released last week, written by 26 authors from 14 institutions. The report, which is the result of a two-day workshop in Oxford, UK followed by months of research, provides a sweeping landscape of the security implications of artificial intelligence.
The authors, who include representatives from the Future of Humanity Institute, the Center for the Study of Existential Risk, OpenAI, and the Center for a New American Security, argue that AI is not only changing the nature and scope of existing threats, but also expanding the range of threats we will face. They are excited about many beneficial applications of AI, including the ways in which it will assist defensive capabilities. But the purpose of the report is to survey the landscape of security threats from intentionally malicious uses of AI.
“Our report focuses on ways in which people could do deliberate harm with AI,” said Seán Ó hÉigeartaigh, Executive Director of the Cambridge Centre for the Study of Existential Risk. “AI may pose new threats, or change the nature of existing threats, across cyber, physical, and political security.”
Importantly, this is not a report about a far-off future. The only technologies considered are those that are already available or that are likely to be within the next five years. The message therefore is one of urgency. We need to acknowledge the risks and take steps to manage them because the technology is advancing exponentially. As reporter Dave Gershgorn put it, “Every AI advance by the good guys is an advance for the bad guys, too.”
AI systems tend to be more efficient and more scalable than traditional tools. Additionally, the use of AI can increase the anonymity and psychological distance a person feels to the actions carried out, potentially lowering the barrier to committing crimes and acts of violence. Moreover, AI systems have their own unique vulnerabilities including risks from data poisoning, adversarial examples, and the exploitation of flaws in their design. AI-enabled attacks will outpace traditional cyberattacks because they will generally be more effective, more finely targeted, and more difficult to attribute.
The kinds of attacks we need to prepare for are not limited to sophisticated computer hacks. The authors suggest there are three primary security domains: digital security, which largely concerns cyberattacks; physical security, which refers to carrying out attacks with drones and other physical systems; and political security, which includes examples such as surveillance, persuasion via targeted propaganda, and deception via manipulated videos. These domains have significant overlap, but the framework can be useful for identifying different types of attacks, the rationale behind them, and the range of options available to protect ourselves.
What can be done to prepare for malicious uses of AI across these domains? The authors provide many good examples. The scenarios described in the report can be a good way for researchers and policymakers to explore possible futures and brainstorm ways to manage the most critical threats. For example, imagining a commercial cleaning robot being repurposed as a non-traceable explosion device may scare us, but it also suggests why policies like robot registration requirements may be a useful option.
Each domain also has its own possible points of control and countermeasures. For example, to improve digital security, companies can promote consumer awareness and incentivize white hat hackers to find vulnerabilities in code. We may also be able to learn from the cybersecurity community and employ measures such as red teaming for AI development, formal verification in AI systems, and responsible disclosure of AI vulnerabilities. To improve physical security, policymakers may want to regulate hardware development and prohibit sales of lethal autonomous weapons. Meanwhile, media platforms may be able to minimize threats to political security by offering image and video authenticity certification, fake news detection, and encryption.
The report additionally provides four high level recommendations, which are not intended to provide specific technical or policy proposals, but rather to draw attention to areas that deserve further investigation. The recommendations are the following:
Recommendation #1: Policymakers should collaborate closely with technical researchers to investigate, prevent, and mitigate potential malicious uses of AI.
Recommendation #2: Researchers and engineers in artificial intelligence should take the dual-use nature of their work seriously, allowing misuse-related considerations to influence research priorities and norms, and proactively reaching out to relevant actors when harmful applications are foreseeable.
Recommendation #3: Best practices should be identified in research areas with more mature methods for addressing dual- use concerns, such as computer security, and imported where applicable to the case of AI.
Recommendation #4: Actively seek to expand the range of stakeholders and domain experts involved in discussions of these challenges.
Finally, the report identifies several areas for further research. The first of these is to learn from and with the cybersecurity community because the impacts of cybersecurity incidents will grow as AI-based systems become more widespread and capable. Other areas of research include exploring different openness models, promoting a culture of responsibility among AI researchers, and developing technological and policy solutions.
As the authors state, “The malicious use of AI will impact how we construct and manage our digital infrastructure as well as how we design and distribute AI systems, and will likely require policy and other institutional responses.”
Although this is only the beginning of the understanding needed on how AI will impact global security, this report moves the discussion forward. It not only describes numerous emergent security concerns related to AI, but also suggests ways we can begin to prepare for those threats today.