FLI Podcast: Existential Hope in 2020 and Beyond with the FLI Team

As 2019 is coming to an end and the opportunities of 2020 begin to emerge, it’s a great time to reflect on the past year and our reasons for hope in the year to come. We spend much of our time on this podcast discussing risks that will possibly lead to the extinction or the permanent and drastic curtailing of the potential of Earth-originating intelligent life. While this is important and useful, much has been done at FLI and in the broader world to address these issues in service of the common good. It can be skillful to reflect on this progress to see how far we’ve come, to develop hope for the future, and to map out our path ahead. This podcast is a special end of the year episode focused on meeting and introducing the FLI team, discussing what we’ve accomplished and are working on, and sharing our feelings and reasons for existential hope going into 2020 and beyond.

Topics discussed include:

  • Introductions to the FLI team and our work
  • Motivations for our projects and existential risk mitigation efforts
  • The goals and outcomes of our work
  • Our favorite projects at FLI in 2019
  • Optimistic directions for projects in 2020
  • Reasons for existential hope going into 2020 and beyond

Timestamps:

0:00 Intro

1:30 Meeting the Future of Life Institute team

18:30 Motivations for our projects and work at FLI

30:04 What we strive to result from our work at FLI

44:44 Favorite accomplishments of FLI in 2019

01:06:20 Project directions we are most excited about for 2020

01:19:43 Reasons for existential hope in 2020 and beyond

01:38:30 Outro

 

You can listen to the podcast above, or read the full transcript below. All of our podcasts are also now on Spotify and iHeartRadio! Or find us on SoundCloudiTunesGoogle Play and Stitcher.

Lucas Perry: Welcome to the Future of Life Institute Podcast. I’m Lucas Perry. Today’s episode is a special end of the year episode structured as an interview with members of the FLI core team. The purpose of this episode is to introduce the members of our team and their roles, explore the projects and work we’ve been up to at FLI throughout the year, and discuss future project directions we are excited about for 2020. Some topics we explore are the motivations behind our work and projects, what we are hoping will result from them, favorite accomplishments at FLI in 2019, and general trends and reasons we see for existential hope going into 2020 and beyond.

If you find this podcast interesting and valuable, you can follow us on your preferred listening platform like on itunes, soundcloud, google play, stitcher, and spotify

If you’re curious to learn more about the Future of Life Institute, our team, our projects, and our feelings about the state and ongoing efforts related to existential risk mitigation, then I feel you’ll find this podcast valuable. So, to get things started, we’re going to have the team introduce ourselves, and our role(s) at the Future of life Institute

Jared Brown: My name is Jared Brown, and I’m the Senior Advisor for Government Affairs at the Future of Life Institute. I help inform and execute FLI’s strategic advocacy work on governmental policy. It’s sounds a little bit behind the scenes because it is, but I primarily work in the U.S. and in global forums like the United Nations.

Kirsten Gronlund: My name is Kirsten and I am the Editorial Director for The Future of Life Institute. Basically, I run the website. I also create new content and manage the content that’s being created to help communicate the issues that FLI works on. I have been helping to produce a lot of our podcasts. I’ve been working on getting some new long form articles written; we just came out with one about CRISPR and gene drives. Right now I’m actually working on putting together a book list for recommended reading for things related to effective altruism and AI and existential risk. I also do social media, and write the newsletter, and a lot of things. I would say that my job is to figure out what is most important to communicate about what FLI does, and then to figure out how it’s best to communicate those things to our audience. Experimenting with different forms of content, experimenting with different messaging. Communication, basically, and writing and editing.

Meia Chita-Tegmark: I am Meia Chita-Tegmark. I am one of the co-founders of the Future of Life Institute. I am also the treasurer of the Institute, and recently I’ve been focusing many of my efforts on the Future of Life website and our outreach projects. For my day job, I am a postdoc in the human-robot interaction lab at Tufts University. My training is in social psychology, so my research actually focuses on the human end of the human-robot interaction. I mostly study uses of assistive robots in healthcare and I’m also very interested in ethical implications of using, or sometimes not using, these technologies. Now, with the Future of Life Institute, as a co-founder, I am obviously involved in a lot of the decision-making regarding the different projects that we are pursuing, but my main focus right now is the FLI website and our outreach efforts.

Tucker Davey: I’m Tucker Davey. I’ve been a member of the FLI core team for a few years. And for the past few months, I’ve been pivoting towards focusing on projects related to FLI’s AI communication strategy, various projects, especially related to advanced AI and artificial general intelligence, and considering how FLI can best message about these topics. Basically these projects are looking at what we believe about the existential risk of advanced AI, and we’re working to refine our core assumptions and adapt to a quickly changing public understanding of AI. In the past five years, there’s been much more money and hype going towards advanced AI, and people have new ideas in their heads about the risk and the hope from AI. And so, our communication strategy has to adapt to those changes. So that’s kind of a taste of the questions we’re working on, and it’s been really interesting to work with the policy team on these questions.

Jessica Cussins Newman: My name is Jessica Cussins Newman, and I am an AI policy specialist with the Future of Life Institute. I work on AI policy, governance, and ethics, primarily. Over the past year, there have been significant developments in all of these fields, and FLI continues to be a key stakeholder and contributor to numerous AI governance forums. So it’s been exciting to work on a team that’s helping to facilitate the development of safe and beneficial AI, both nationally and globally. To give an example of some of the initiatives that we’ve been involved with this year, we provided comments to the European Commission’s high level expert group on AI, to the Defense Innovation Board’s work on AI ethical principles, to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, or NIST, which developed a plan for federal engagement on technical AI standards.

We’re also continuing to participate in several multi-stakeholder initiatives, such as the Partnership on AI, the CNAS AI Task Force, and the UN Secretary General’s high level panel, and additional cooperation among others. I think all of this is helping to lay the groundwork for a more trustworthy AI, and we’ve also been engaged with direct policy engagement. Earlier this year we co-hosted an AI policy briefing at the California state legislature, and met with the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Lastly, on the educational side of this work, we maintain an online resource for global AI policy. So this includes information about national AI strategies and provides background resources and policy recommendations around some of the key issues.

Ian Rusconi: My name is Ian Rusconi and I edit and produce these podcasts. Since FLI’s podcasts aren’t recorded in a controlled studio setting, the interviews often come with a host of technical issues, so some of what I do for these podcasts overlaps with forensic audio enhancement, removing noise from recordings; removing as much of the reverb as possible from recordings, which works better sometimes than others; removing clicks and pops and sampling errors and restoring the quality of clipping audio that was recorded too loudly. And then comes the actual editing, getting rid of all the breathing and lip smacking noises that people find off-putting, and cutting out all of the dead space and vocal dithering, um, uh, like, you know, because we aim for a tight final product that can sometimes end up as much as half the length of the original conversation even before any parts of the conversation are cut out.

Part of working in an audio only format is keeping things to the minimum amount of information required to get your point across, because there is nothing else that distracts the listener from what’s going on. When you’re working with video, you can see people’s body language, and that’s so much of communication. When it’s audio only, you can’t. So a lot of the time, if there is a divergent conversational thread that may be an interesting and related point, it doesn’t actually fit into the core of the information that we’re trying to access, and you can construct a more meaningful narrative by cutting out superfluous details.

Emilia Javorsky: My name’s Emilia Javorsky and at the Future of Life Institute, I work on the topic of lethal autonomous weapons, mainly focusing on issues of education and advocacy efforts. It’s an issue that I care very deeply about and I think is one of the more pressing ones of our time. I actually come from a slightly atypical background to be engaged in this issue. I’m a physician and a scientist by training, but what’s conserved there is a discussion of how do we use AI in high stakes environments where life and death decisions are being made. And so when you are talking about the decisions to prevent harm, which is my field of medicine, or in the case of lethal autonomous weapons, the decision to enact lethal harm, there’s just fundamentally different moral questions, and also system performance questions that come up.

Key ones that I think about a lot are system reliability, accountability, transparency. But when it comes to thinking about lethal autonomous weapons in the context of the battlefield, there’s also this inherent scalability issue that arises. When you’re talking about scalable weapon systems, that quickly introduces unique security challenges in terms of proliferation and an ability to become what you could quite easily define as weapons of mass destruction. 

There’s also the broader moral questions at play here, and the question of whether we as a society want to delegate the decision to take a life to machines. And I personally believe that if we allow autonomous weapons to move forward and we don’t do something to really set a stake in the ground, it could set an irrecoverable precedent when we think about getting ever more powerful AI aligned with our values in the future. It is a very near term issue that requires action.

Anthony Aguirre: I’m Anthony Aguirre. I’m a professor of physics at the University of California at Santa Cruz, and I’m one of FLI’s founders, part of the core team, and probably work mostly on the policy related aspects of artificial intelligence and a few other topics. 

I’d say there are two major efforts that I’m heading up. One is the overall FLI artificial intelligence policy effort. That encompasses a little bit of our efforts on lethal autonomous weapons, but it’s mostly about wider issues of how artificial intelligence development should be thought about, how it should be governed, what kind of soft or hard regulations might we contemplate about it. Global efforts which are really ramping up now, both in the US and Europe and elsewhere, to think about how artificial intelligence should be rolled out in a way that’s kind of ethical, that keeps with the ideals of society, that’s safe and robust and in general is beneficial, rather than running into a whole bunch of negative side effects. That’s part of it.

And then the second thing is I’ve been thinking a lot about what sort of institutions and platforms and capabilities might be useful for society down the line that we can start to create, and nurture and grow now. So I’ve been doing a lot of thinking about… let’s imagine that we’re in some society 10 or 20 or 30 years from now that’s working well, how did it solve some of the problems that we see on the horizon? If we can come up with ways that this fictitious society in principle solved those problems, can we try to lay the groundwork for possibly actually solving those problems by creating new structures and institutions now that can grow into things that could help solve those problems in the future?

So an example of that is Metaculus. This is a prediction platform that I’ve been involved with in the last few years. So this is an effort to create a way to better predict what’s going to happen and make better decisions, both for individual organizations and FLI itself, but just for the world in general. This is kind of a capability that it would be good if the world had, making better predictions about all kinds of things and making better decisions. So that’s one example, but there are a few others that I’ve been contemplating and trying to get spun up.

Max Tegmark: Hi, I’m Max Tegmark, and I think of myself as having two jobs. During the day, I do artificial intelligence research at MIT, and on nights and weekends, I help lead the Future of Life Institute. My day job at MIT used to be focused on cosmology, because I was always drawn to the very biggest questions. The bigger the better, and studying our universe and its origins seemed to be kind of as big as it gets. But in recent years, I’ve felt increasingly fascinated that we have to understand more about how our own brains work, how our intelligence works, and building better artificial intelligence. Asking the question, how can we make sure that this technology, which I think is going to be the most powerful ever, actually becomes the best thing ever to happen to humanity, and not the worst.

Because all technology is really a double-edged sword. It’s not good or evil, it’s just a tool that we can do good or bad things with. If we think about some of the really horrible things that have happened because of AI systems, so far, it’s largely been not because of evil, but just because people didn’t understand how the system worked, and it did something really bad. So what my MIT research group is focused on is exactly tackling that. How can you take today’s AI systems, which are often very capable, but total black boxes… So that if you ask your system, “Why should this person be released on probation, but not this one?” You’re not going to get any better answer than, “I was trained on three terabytes of data and this is my answer. Beep, beep. Boop, boop.” Whereas, I feel we really have the potential to make systems that are just as capable, and much more intelligible. 

Trust should be earned and trust should be built based on us actually being able to peek inside the system and say, “Ah, this is why it works.” And the reason we have founded the Future of Life Institute was because all of us founders, we love technology, and we felt that the reason we would prefer living today rather than any time in the past, is all because of technology. But, for the first time in cosmic history, this technology is also on the verge of giving us the ability to actually self-destruct as a civilization. If we build AI, which can amplify human intelligence like never before, and eventually supersede it, then just imagine your least favorite leader on the planet, and imagine them having artificial general intelligence so they can impose their will on the rest of Earth.

How does that make you feel? It does not make me feel great, and I had a New Year’s resolution in 2014 that I was no longer allowed to complain about stuff if I didn’t actually put some real effort into doing something about it. This is why I put so much effort into FLI. The solution is not to try to stop technology, it just ain’t going to happen. The solution is instead win what I like to call the wisdom race. Make sure that the wisdom with which we manage our technology grows faster than the power of the technology.

Lucas Perry: Awesome, excellent. As for me, I’m Lucas Perry, and I’m the project manager for the Future of Life Institute. I’ve been with FLI for about four years now, and have focused on enabling and delivering projects having to do with existential risk mitigation. Beyond basic operations tasks at FLI that help keep things going, I’ve seen my work as having three cornerstones, these being supporting research on technical AI alignment, on advocacy relating to existential risks and related issues, and on direct work via our projects focused on existential risk. 

In terms of advocacy related work, you may know me as the host of the AI Alignment Podcast Series, and more recently the host of the Future of Life Institute Podcast. I see my work on the AI Alignment Podcast Series as promoting and broadening the discussion around AI alignment and AI safety to a diverse audience of both technical experts and persons interested in the issue.

There I am striving to include a diverse range of voices from many different disciplines, in so far as they can inform the AI alignment problem. The Future of Life Institute Podcast is a bit more general, though often dealing with related issues. There I strive to have conversations about avant garde subjects as they relate to technological risk, existential risk, and cultivating the wisdom with which to manage powerful and emerging technologies. For the AI Alignment Podcast, our most popular episode of all time so far is On Becoming a Moral Realist with Peter Singer, and a close second and third were On Consciousness, Qualia, and Meaning with Mike Johnson and Andres Gomez Emilsson, and An Overview of Technical AI Alignment with Rohin Shah. There are two parts to that podcast. These were really great episodes, and I suggest you check them out if they sound interesting to you. You can do that under the podcast tab on our site or by finding us on your preferred listening platform.

As for the main FLI Podcast Series, our most popular episodes have been an interview with FLI President Max Tegmark called Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial intelligence. A podcast similar to this one last year, called Existential Hope in 2019 and Beyond was the second most listened to FLI podcast. And then the third is a more recent podcast called The Climate Crisis As An Existential Threat with Simon Beard and Hayden Belfield. 

In so far as the other avenue of my work, my support of research can be stated quite simply as fostering review of grant applications, and also reviewing interim reports for dispersing funds related to AGI safety grants. And then just touching again on my direct work around our projects, often if you see some project put out by the Future of Life Institute, I usually have at least some involvement with it from a logistics, operations, execution, or ideation standpoint related to it.

And moving into the next line of questioning here for the team, what would you all say motivates your interest in existential risk and the work that you do at FLI? Is there anything in particular that is motivating this work for you?

Ian Rusconi: What motivates my interest in existential risk in general I think is that it’s extraordinarily interdisciplinary. But my interest in what I do at FLI is mostly that I’m really happy to have a hand in producing content that I find compelling. But it isn’t just the subjects and the topics that we cover in these podcasts, it’s how you and Ariel have done so. One of the reasons I have so much respect for the work that you two have done and consequently enjoy working on it so much is the comprehensive approach that you take in your lines of questioning.

You aren’t afraid to get into the weeds with interviewees on very specific technical details, but still seek to clarify jargon and encapsulate explanations, and there’s always an eye towards painting a broader picture so we can contextualize a subject’s placement in a field as a whole. I think that FLI’s podcasts often do a tightrope act, walking the line between popular audience and field specialists in a way that doesn’t treat the former like children, and doesn’t bore the latter with a lack of substance. And that’s a really hard thing to do. And I think it’s a rare opportunity to be able to help create something like this.

Kirsten Gronlund: I guess really broadly, I feel like there’s sort of this sense generally that a lot of these technologies and things that we’re coming up with are going to fix a lot of issues on their own. Like new technology will help us feed more people, and help us end poverty, and I think that that’s not true. We already have the resources to deal with a lot of these problems, and we haven’t been. So I think, really, we need to figure out a way to use what is coming out and the things that we’re inventing to help people. Otherwise we’re going to end up with a lot of new technology making the top 1% way more wealthy, and everyone else potentially worse off.

So I think for me that’s really what it is, is to try to communicate to people that these technologies are not, on their own, the solution, and we need to all work together to figure out how to implement them, and how to restructure things in society more generally so that we can use these really amazing tools to make the world better.

Lucas Perry: Yeah. I’m just thinking about how technology enables abundance and how it seems like there are not limits to human greed, and there are limits to human greed. Human greed can potentially want infinite power, but also there’s radically diminishing returns on one’s own happiness and wellbeing as one gains more access to more abundance. It seems like there’s kind of a duality there. 

Kirsten Gronlund: I agree. I mean, I think that’s a very effective altruist way to look at it. That those same resources, if everyone has some power and some money, people will on average be happier than if you have all of it and everyone else has less. But I feel like people, at least people who are in the position to accumulate way more money than they could ever use, tend to not think of it that way, which is unfortunate.

Tucker Davey: In general with working with FLI, I think I’m motivated by some mix of fear and hope. And I would say the general fear is that, if we as a species don’t figure out how to cooperate on advanced technology, and if we don’t agree to avoid certain dangerous paths, we’ll inevitably find some way to destroy ourselves, whether it’s through AI or nuclear weapons or synthetic biology. But then that’s also balanced by a hope that there’s so much potential for large scale cooperation to achieve our goals on these issues, and so many more people are working on these topics as opposed to five years ago. And I think there really is a lot of consensus on some broad shared goals. So I have a hope that through cooperation and better coordination we can better tackle some of these really big issues.

Emilia Javorsky: Part of the reason as a physician I went into the research side of it is this idea of wanting to help people at scale. I really love the idea of how do we use science and translational medicine, not just to help one person, but to help whole populations of people. And so for me, this issue of lethal autonomous weapons is the converse of that. This is something that really has the capacity to both destroy lives at scale in the near term, and also as we think towards questions like value alignment and longer term, more existential questions, it’s something that for me is just very motivating. 

Jared Brown: This is going to sound a little cheesy and maybe even a little selfish, but my main motivation is my kids. I know that they have a long life ahead of them, hopefully, and there’s various different versions of the future that’ll better or worse for them. And I know that emerging technology policy is going to be key to maximizing the benefit of their future and everybody else’s, and that’s ultimately what motivates me. I’ve been thinking about tech policy basically ever since I started researching and reading Futurism books when my daughter was born about eight years ago, and that’s what really got me into the field and motivated to work on it full-time.

Meia Chita-Tegmark: I like to think of my work as being ultimately about people. I think that one of the most interesting aspects of this human drama is our relationship with technology, which recently has become evermore promising and also evermore dangerous. So, I want to study that, and I feel crazy lucky that there are universities willing to pay me to do it. And also to the best of my abilities, I want to try to nudge people in the technologies that they develop in more positive directions. I’d like to see a world where technology is used to save lives and not to take lives. I’d like to see technologies that are used for nurture and care rather than power and manipulation. 

Jessica Cussins Newman: I think the integration of machine intelligence into the world around us is one of the most impactful changes that we’ll experience in our lifetimes. I’m really excited about the beneficial uses of AI, but I worry about its impacts, and the questions of not just what we can build, but what we should build. And how we could see these technologies being destabilizing, or that won’t be sufficiently thoughtful about ensuring that the systems aren’t developed or used in ways that expose us to new vulnerabilities, or impose undue burdens on particular communities.

Anthony Aguirre: I would say it’s kind of a combination of things. Everybody looks at the world and sees that there are all kinds of problems and issues and negative directions that lots of things are going, and it feels frustrating and depressing. And I feel that given that I’ve got a particular day job that’ll affords me a lot of freedom, given that I have this position at Future of Life Institute, that there are a lot of talented people around who I’m able to work with, there’s a huge opportunity, and a rare opportunity to actually do something.

Who knows how effective it’ll actually be in the end, but to try to do something and to take advantage of the freedom, and standing, and relationships, and capabilities that I have available. I kind of see that as a duty in a sense, that if you find in a place where you have a certain set of capabilities, and resources, and flexibility, and safety, you kind of have a duty to make use of that for something beneficial. I sort of feel that, and so try to do so, but I also feel like it’s just super interesting, thinking about the ways that you can create things that can be effective, it’s just a fun intellectual challenge. 

There are certainly aspects of what I do at Future of Life Institute that are sort of, “Oh, yeah, this is important so I should do it, but I don’t really feel like it.” Those are occasionally there, but mostly it feels like, “Ooh, this is really interesting and exciting, I want to get this done and see what happens.” So in that sense it’s really gratifying in both ways, to feel like it’s both potentially important and positive, but also really fun and interesting.

Max Tegmark: What really motivates me is this optimistic realization that after 13.8 billion years of cosmic history, we have reached this fork in the road where we have these conscious entities on this little spinning ball in space here who, for the first time ever, have the future in their own hands. In the stone age, who cared what you did? Life was going to be more or less the same 200 years later regardless, right? Whereas now, we can either develop super powerful technology and use it to destroy life on earth completely, go extinct and so on. Or, we can create a future where, with the help of artificial intelligence amplifying our intelligence, we can help life flourish like never before. And I’m not talking just about the next election cycle, I’m talking about for billions of years. And not just here, but throughout much of our amazing universe. So I feel actually that we have a huge responsibility, and a very exciting one, to make sure we don’t squander this opportunity, don’t blow it. That’s what lights me on fire.

Lucas Perry: So I’m deeply motivated by the possibilities of the deep future. I often take cosmological or macroscopic perspectives when thinking about my current condition or the condition of life on earth. The universe is about 13.8 billion years old and our short lives of only a few decades are couched within the context of this ancient evolving system of which we are a part. As far as we know, consciousness has only really exploded and come onto the scene in the past few hundred million years, at least in our sector of space and time, and the fate of the universe is uncertain but it seems safe to say that we have at least billions upon billions of years left before the universe perishes in some way. That means there’s likely longer than the current lifetime of the universe for earth originating intelligent life to do and experience amazing and beautiful things beyond what we can even know or conceive of today.

It seems very likely to me that the peaks and depths of human consciousness, from the worst human misery to the greatest of joy, peace, euphoria, and love, represent only a very small portion of a much larger and higher dimensional space of possible conscious experiences. So given this, I’m deeply moved by the possibility of artificial intelligence being the next stage in the evolution of life and the capacities for that intelligence to solve existential risk, for that intelligence to explore the space of consciousness and optimize the world, for super-intelligent and astronomical degrees of the most meaningful and profound states of consciousness possible. So sometimes I ask myself, what’s a universe good for if not ever evolving into higher and more profound and intelligent states of conscious wellbeing? I’m not sure, and this is still an open question for sure, but this deeply motivates me as I feel that the future can be unimaginably good to degrees and kinds of wellbeing that we can’t even conceive of today. There’s a lot of capacity there for the future to be something that is really, really, really worth getting excited and motivated about.

And moving along in terms of questioning again here, this question is again for the whole team: do you have anything more specifically that you hope results from your work, or is born of your work at FLI?

Jared Brown: So, I have two primary objectives, the first is sort of minor but significant. A lot of what I do on a day-to-day basis is advocate for relatively minor changes to existing and future near term policy on emerging technology. And some of these changes won’t make a world of difference unto themselves, but the small marginal benefits to the future can cumulate rather significantly overtime. So, I look for as many small wins as possible in different policy-making environments, and try and achieve those on a regular basis.

And then more holistically in the long-run, I really want to help destigmatize the discussion around global catastrophic and existential risk, and Traditional National Security, and International Security policy-making. It’s still quite an obscure and weird thing to say to people, I work on global catastrophic and existential risk, and it really shouldn’t be. I should be able talk to most policy-makers in security related fields, and have it not come off as a weird or odd thing to be working on. Because inherently what we’re talking about is the very worst of what could happen to you or humanity or even life as we know it on this planet. And there should be more people who work on these issues both from an effective altruistic perspective and other perspectives going forward.

Jessica Cussins Newman: I want to raise awareness about the impacts of AI and the kinds of levers that we have available to us today to help shape these trajectories. So from designing more robust machine learning models, to establishing the institutional procedures or processes that can track and monitor those design decisions and outcomes and impacts, to developing accountability and governance mechanisms to ensure that those AI systems are contributing to a better future. We’ve built a tool that can automate decision making, but we need to retain human control and decide collectively as a society where and how to implement these new abilities.

Max Tegmark: I feel that there’s a huge disconnect right now between our potential, as the human species, and the direction we’re actually heading in. We are spending most of our discussions in news media on total BS. You know, like country A and country B are squabbling about something which is quite minor, in the grand scheme of things, and people are often treating each other very badly in the misunderstanding that they’re in some kind of zero-sum game, where one person can only get better off if someone else gets worse off. Technology is not a zero-sum game. Everybody wins at the same time, ultimately, if you do it right. 

Why are we so much better off now than 50,000 years ago or 300 years ago? It’s because we have antibiotics so we don’t die of stupid diseases all the time. It’s because we have the means to produce food and keep ourselves warm, and so on, with technology, and this is nothing compared to what AI can do.

I’m very much hoping that this mindset that we all lose together or win together is something that can catch on a bit more as people gradually realize the power of this tech. It’s not the case that either China is going to win and the U.S. is going to lose, or vice versa. What’s going to happen is either we’re both going to lose because there’s going to be some horrible conflict and it’s going to ruin things for everybody, or we’re going to have a future where people in China are much better off, and people in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world are also much better off, and everybody feels that they won. There really is no third outcome that’s particularly likely.

Lucas Perry: So, in the short term, I’m hoping that all of the projects we’re engaging with help to nudge the trajectory of life on earth in a positive direction. I’m hopeful that we can mitigate an arms race in lethal autonomous weapons. I see that as being a crucial first step in coordination around AI issues such that, if that fails, it may likely be much harder to coordinate in the future on making sure that beneficial AI takes place. I am also hopeful that we can promote beneficial AI alignment and AI safety research farther and mainstream its objectives and understandings about the risks posed by AI and what it means to create beneficial AI. I’m hoping that we can maximize the wisdom with which we handle technology through projects and outreach, which explicitly cultivate ethics and coordination and governance in ways which help to direct and develop technologies in ways that are beneficial.

I’m also hoping that we can promote and instantiate a culture and interest in existential risk issues and the technical, political, and philosophical problems associated with powerful emerging technologies like AI. It would be wonderful if the conversations that we have on the podcast and at FLI and in the surrounding community weren’t just something for us. These are issues that are deeply interesting and will ever become more important as technology becomes more powerful. And so I’m really hoping that one day discussions about existential risk and all the kinds of conversations that we have on the podcast are much more mainstream, are normal, that there are serious institutions in government and society which explore these, is part of common discourse as a society and civilization.

Emilia Javorsky: In an ideal world, all of FLI’s work in this area, a great outcome would be the realization of the Asilomar principle that an arms race in lethal autonomous weapons must be avoided. I hope that we do get there in the shorter term. I think the activities that we’re doing now on increasing awareness around this issue, better understanding and characterizing the unique risks that these systems pose across the board from a national security perspective, a human rights perspective, and an AI governance perspective, are a really big win in my book.

Meia Chita-Tegmark: When I allow myself to unreservedly daydream about how I want my work to manifest itself into the world, I always conjure up fantasy utopias in which people are cared for and are truly inspired. For example, that’s why I am very committed to fighting against the development of lethal autonomous weapons. It’s precisely because a world with such technologies would be one in which human lives would be cheap, killing would be anonymous, our moral compass would likely be very damaged by this. I want to start work on using technology to help people, maybe to heal people. In my research, I tried to think of various disabilities and how technology can help with those, but that is just one tiny aspect of a wealth of possibilities for using technology, and in particular, AI for good.

Anthony Aguirre: I’ll be quite gratified if I can find that some results of some of the things that I’ve done help society be better and more ready, and to wisely deal with challenges that are unfolding. There are a huge number of problems in society, but there are a particular subset that are just sort of exponentially growing problems, because they have to do with exponentially advancing technology. And the set of people who are actually thinking proactively of the problems that those technologies are going to create, rather than just creating the technologies or sort of dealing with the problems when they arise, it’s quite small.

FLI is a pretty significant part of that tiny community of people who are thinking about that. But I also think it’s very important. Problems are better solved in advance, if possible. So I think anything that we can do to nudge things in the right direction, taking the relatively high point of leverage I think the Future of Life Institute has, will feel useful and worthwhile. Any of these projects being successful, I think will have a significant positive impact, and it’s just a question of buckling down and trying to get them to work.

Kirsten Gronlund: A big part of this field, not necessarily, but sort of just historically has been that it’s very male, and it’s very white, and in and of itself is a pretty privileged group of people, and something that I personally care about a lot is to try to expand some of these conversations around the future, and what we want it to look like, and how we’re going to get there, and involve more people and more diverse voices, more perspectives.

It goes along with what I was saying, that if we don’t figure out how to use these technologies in better ways, we’re just going to be contributing to people who have historically been benefiting from technology, and so I think bringing some of the people who have historically not been benefiting from technology and the way that our society is structured into these conversations, can help us figure out how to make things better. I’ve definitely been trying, while we’re doing this book guide thing, to make sure that there’s a good balance of male and female authors, people of color, et cetera and same with our podcast guests and things like that. But yeah, I mean I think there’s a lot more to be done, definitely, in that area.

Tucker Davey: So with the projects related to FLI’s AI communication strategy, I am hopeful that as an overall community, as an AI safety community, as an effective altruism community, existential risk community, we’ll be able to better understand what our core beliefs are about risks from advanced AI, and better understand how to communicate to different audiences, whether these are policymakers that we need to convince that AI is a problem worth considering, or whether it’s just the general public, or shareholders, or investors. Different audiences have different ideas of AI, and if we as a community want to be more effective at getting them to care about this issue and understand that it’s a big risk, we need to figure out better ways to communicate with them. And I’m hoping that a lot of this communications work will help the community as a whole, not just FLI, communicate with these different parties and help them understand the risks.

Ian Rusconi: Well, I can say that I’ve learned more since I started working on these podcasts about more disparate subjects than I had any idea about. Take lethal autonomous weapon systems, for example, I didn’t know anything about that subject when I started. These podcasts are extremely educational, but they’re conversational, and that makes them accessible, and I love that. And I hope that as our audience increases, other people find the same thing and keep coming back because we learn something new every time. I think that through podcasts, like the ones that we put out at FLI, we are enabling that sort of educational enrichment.

Lucas Perry: Cool. I feel the same way. So, you actually have listened to more FLI podcasts than perhaps anyone, since you’ve listened to all of them. Of all of these podcasts, do you have any specific projects, or a series that you have found particularly valuable? Any favorite podcasts, if you could mention a few, or whatever you found most valuable?

Ian Rusconi: Yeah, a couple of things. First, back in February, Ariel and Max Tegmark did a two part conversation with Matthew Meselson in advance of FLI awarding him in April, and I think that was probably the most fascinating and wide ranging single conversation I’ve ever heard. Philosophy, science history, weapons development, geopolitics, the value of the humanities from a scientific standpoint, artificial intelligence, treaty development. It was just such an incredible amount of lived experience and informed perspective in that conversation. And, in general, when people ask me what kinds of things we cover on the FLI podcast, I point them to that episode.

Second, I’m really proud of the work that we did on Not Cool, A Climate Podcast. The amount of coordination and research Ariel and Kirsten put in to make that project happen was staggering. I think my favorite episodes from there were those dealing with the social ramifications of climate change, specifically human migration. It’s not my favorite topic to think about, for sure, but I think it’s something that we all desperately need to be aware of. I’m oversimplifying things here, but Kris Ebi’s explanations of how crop failure and malnutrition and vector borne diseases can lead to migration, Cullen Hendrix touching on migration as it relates to the social changes and conflicts born of climate change, Lindsay Getschel’s discussion of climate change as a threat multiplier and the national security implications of migration.

Migration is happening all the time and it’s something that we keep proving we’re terrible at dealing with, and climate change is going to increase migration, period. And we need to figure out how to make it work and we need to do it in a way that ameliorates living standards and prevents this extreme concentrated suffering. And there are questions about how to do this while preserving cultural identity, and the social systems that we have put in place, and I know none of these are easy. But if instead we’d just take the question of, how do we reduce suffering? Well, we know how to do that and it’s not complicated per se: have compassion and act on it. We need compassionate government and governance. And that’s a thing that came up a few times, sometimes directly and sometimes obliquely, in Not Cool. The more I think about how to solve problems like these, the more I think the intelligent answer is compassion.

Lucas Perry: So, do you feel like you just learned a ton about climate change from the Not Cool podcast that you just had no idea about?

Ian Rusconi: Yeah, definitely. And that’s really something that I can say about all of FLI’s podcast series in general, is that there are so many subtopics on the things that we talk about that I always learn something new every time I’m putting together one of these episodes. 

Some of the actually most thought provoking podcasts to me are the ones about the nature of intelligence and cognition, and what it means to experience something, and how we make decisions. Two of the AI Alignment Podcast episodes from this year stand out to me in particular. First was the one with Josh Green in February, which did an excellent job of explaining the signal grounding problem and grounded cognition in an understandable and engaging way. And I’m also really interested in his lab’s work using the veil of ignorance. And second was the episode with Mike Johnson and Andres Gomez Emilsson of the Qualia Research Institute in May, where I particularly liked the discussion of electromagnetic harmony in the brain, and the interaction between the consonance and dissonance of it’s waves, and how you can basically think of music as a means by which we can hack our brains. Again, it gets back to the fabulously, extraordinarily interdisciplinary aspect of everything that we talk about here.

Lucas Perry: Kirsten, you’ve also been integral to the podcast process. What are your favorite things that you’ve done at FLI in 2019, and are there any podcasts in particular that stand out for you?

Kirsten Gronlund: The Women For The Future campaign was definitely one of my favorite things, which was basically just trying to highlight the work of women involved in existential risk, and through that try to get more women feeling like this is something that they can do and to introduce them to the field a little bit. And then also the Not Cool Podcast that Ariel and I did. I know climate isn’t the major focus of FLI, but it is such an important issue right now, and it was really just interesting for me because I was much more closely involved with picking the guests and stuff than I have been with some of the other podcasts. So it was just cool to learn about various people and their research and what’s going to happen to us if we don’t fix the climate. 

Lucas Perry: What were some of the most interesting things that you learned from the Not Cool podcast? 

Kirsten Gronlund: Geoengineering was really crazy. I didn’t really know at all what geoengineering was before working on this podcast, and I think it was Alan Robock in his interview who was saying even just for people to learn about the fact that one of the solutions that people are considering to climate change right now being shooting a ton of crap into the atmosphere and basically creating a semi nuclear winter, would hopefully be enough to kind of freak people out into being like, “maybe we should try to fix this a different way.” So that was really crazy.

I also thought it was interesting just learning about some of the effects of climate change that you wouldn’t necessarily think of right away. The fact that they’ve shown the links between increased temperature and upheaval in government, and they’ve shown links between increased temperature and generally bad mood, poor sleep, things like that. The quality of our crops is going to get worse, so we’re going to be eating less nutritious food.

Then some of the cool things, I guess this ties in as well with artificial intelligence, is some of the ways that people are using some of these technologies like AI and machine learning to try to come up with solutions. I thought that was really cool to learn about, because that’s kind of like what I was saying earlier where if we can figure out how to use these technologies in productive ways. They are such powerful tools and can do so much good for us. So it was cool to see that in action in the ways that people are implementing automated systems and machine learning to reduce emissions and help out with the climate.

Lucas Perry: From my end, I’m probably most proud of our large conference, Beneficial AGI 2019, we did to further mainstream AGI safety thinking and research and then the resulting projects which were a result of conversations which took place there were also very exciting and encouraging. I’m also very happy about the growth and development of our podcast series. This year, we’ve had over 200,000 listens to our podcasts. So I’m optimistic about the continued growth and development of our outreach through this medium and our capacity to inform people about these crucial issues.

Everyone else, other than podcasts, what are some of your favorite things that you’ve done at FLI in 2019?

Tucker Davey: I would have to say the conferences. So the beneficial AGI conference was an amazing start to the year. We gathered such a great crowd in Puerto Rico, people from the machine learning side, from governance, from ethics, from psychology, and really getting a great group together to talk out some really big questions, specifically about the long-term future of AI, because there’s so many conferences nowadays about the near term impacts of AI, and very few are specifically dedicated to thinking about the long term. So it was really great to get a group together to talk about those questions and that set off a lot of good thinking for me personally. That was an excellent conference. 

And then a few months later, Anthony and a few others organized a conference called the Augmented Intelligence Summit, and that was another great collection of people from many different disciplines, basically thinking about a hopeful future with AI and trying to do world building exercises to figure out what that ideal world with AI would look like. These conferences and these events in these summits do a great job of bringing together people from different disciplines in different schools of thought to really tackle these hard questions, and everyone who attends them is really dedicated and motivated, so seeing all those faces is really inspiring.

Jessica Cussins Newman: I’ve really enjoyed the policy engagement that we’ve been able to have this year. You know, looking back to last year, we did see a lot of successes around the development of ethical principles for AI, and I think this past year, there’s been significant interest in actually implementing those principles into practice. So seeing many different governance forums, both within the U.S. and around the world, look to that next level, and so I think one of my favorite things has just been seeing FLI become a trusted resource for so many of those governance and policies processes that I think will significantly shape the future of AI.

I think the thing that I continue to value significantly about FLI is its ability as an organization to just bring together an amazing network of AI researchers and scientists, and to be able to hold events, and networking and outreach activities, that can merge those communities with other people thinking about issues around governance or around ethics or other kinds of sectors and disciplines. We have been playing a key role in translating some of the technical challenges related to AI safety and security into academic and policy spheres. And so that continues to be one of my favorite things that FLI is really uniquely good at.

Jared Brown: A recent example here, Future of Life Institute submitted some comments on a regulation that the Department of Housing and Urban Development put out in the U.S. And essentially the regulation is quite complicated, but they were seeking comment about how to integrate artificial intelligence systems into the legal liability framework surrounding something called ‘the Fair Housing Act,’ which is an old, very important civil rights legislation and protection to prevent discrimination in the housing market. And their proposal was essentially to grant users, such as a mortgage lender, or the banking system seeking loans, or even a landlord, if they were to use an algorithm to decide who they rent out a place to, or who to give a loan, that met certain technical standards, they’d be given liability protection. And this stems from the growing use of AI in the housing market. 

Now, in theory, there’s nothing wrong with using algorithmic systems so long as they’re not biased, and they’re accurate, and well thought out. However, if you grant it like HUD wanted to, blanket liability protection, you’re essentially telling that bank officer or that landlord that they should only exclusively use those AI systems that have the liability protection. And if they see a problem in those AI systems, and they’ve got somebody sitting across from them, and think this person really should get a loan, or this person should be able to rent my apartment because I think they’re trustworthy, but the AI algorithm says “no,” they’re not going to dispute what the AI algorithm tells them too, because to do that, they take on liability of their own, and could potentially get sued. So, there’s a real danger here in moving too quickly in terms of how much legal protection we give these systems. And so, the Future of Life Institute, as well as many other different groups, commented on this proposal and pointed out these flaws to the Department of Housing and Urban Development. That’s an example of just one of many different things that the Future of Life has done, and you can actually go online and see our public comments for yourself, if you want to.

Lucas Perry:Wonderful.

Jared Brown: Honestly, a lot of my favorite things are just these off the record type conversations that I have in countless formal and informal settings with different policymakers and people who influence policy. The policy-making world is an old-fashioned, face-to-face type business, and essentially you really have to be there, and to meet these people, and to have these conversations to really develop a level of trust, and a willingness to engage with them in order to be most effective. And thankfully I’ve had a huge range of those conversations throughout the year, especially on AI. And I’ve been really excited to see how well received Future of Life has been as an institution. Our reputation precedes us because of a lot of the great work we’ve done in the past with the Asilomar AI principles, and the AI safety grants. It’s really helped me get in the room for a lot of these conversations, and given us a lot of credibility as we discuss near-term AI policy.

In terms of bigger public projects, I also really enjoyed coordinating with some community partners across the space in our advocacy on the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology’s plan for engaging in the development of technical standards on AI. In the policy realm, it’s really hard to see some of the end benefit of your work, because you’re doing advocacy work, and it’s hard to get folks to really tell you why the certain changes were made, and if you were able to persuade them. But in this circumstance, I happen to know for a fact that we had real positive effect on the end products that they developed. I talked to the lead authors about it, and others, and can see the evidence in the final product of the effect of our changes.

In addition to our policy and advocacy work, I really, really like that FLI continues to interface with the AI technical expert community on a regular basis. And this isn’t just through our major conferences, but also informally throughout the entire year, through various different channels and personal relationships that we’ve developed. It’s really critical for anyone’s policy work to be grounded in the technical expertise on the topic that they’re covering. And I’ve been thankful for the number of opportunities I’ve been given throughout the year to really touch base with some of the leading minds in AI about what might work best, and what might not work best from a policy perspective, to help inform our own advocacy and thinking on various different issues.

I also really enjoy the educational and outreach work that FLI is doing. As with our advocacy work, it’s sometimes very difficult to see the end benefit of the work that we do with our podcasts, and our website, and our newsletter. But I know anecdotally, from various different people, that they are listened too, that they are read by leading policymakers and researchers in this space. And so, they have a real effect on developing a common understanding in the community and helping network and develop collaboration on some key topics that are of interest to the Future of Life and people like us.

Emilia Javorsky: 2019 was a great year at FLI. It’s my first year at FLI, so I’m really excited to be part of such an incredible team. There are two real highlights that come to mind. One was publishing an article in the British Medical Journal on this topic of engaging the medical community in the lethal autonomous weapons debate. In previous disarmament conversations, it’s always been a community that has played an instrumental role in getting global action on these issues passed, whether you look at nuclear, landmines, biorisk… So that was something that I thought was a great contribution, because up until now, they hadn’t really been engaged in the discussion.

The other that comes to mind that was really amazing was a workshop that we hosted, where we brought together AI researchers, and roboticists, and lethal autonomous weapons experts, with very divergent range of views of the topic, to see if they could achieve consensus on something. Anything. We weren’t really optimistic to say what that could be going into it, and the result of that was actually remarkably heartening. They came up with a roadmap that outlined four components for action on lethal autonomous weapons, including things like the potential role that a moratorium may play, research areas that need exploration, non-proliferation strategies, ways to avoid unintentional escalation. They actually published this in the IEEE Spectrum, which I really recommend reading, but it was just really exciting to see just how much area of agreement and consensus that can exist in people that you would normally think have very divergent views on the topic.

Max Tegmark: To make it maximally easy for them to get along, we actually did this workshop in our house, and we had lots of wine. And because they were in our house, also it was a bit easier to exert social pressure on them to make sure they were nice to each other, and have a constructive discussion. The task we gave them was simply: write down anything that they all agreed on that should be done to reduce the risk of terrorism or destabilizing events from this tech. And you might’ve expected a priori that they would come up with a blank piece of paper, because some of these people had been arguing very publicly that we need lethal autonomous weapons, and others had been arguing very vociferously that we should ban them. Instead, it was just so touching to see that when they actually met each other, often for the first time, they could actually listen directly to each other, rather than seeing weird quotes in the news about each other. 

Meia Chita-Tegmark: If I had to pick one thing, especially in terms of emotional intensity, it’s really been a while since I’ve been on such an emotional roller coaster as the one during the workshop related to lethal autonomous weapons. It was so inspirational to see how people that come with such diverging opinions could actually put their minds together, and work towards finding consensus. For me, that was such a hope inducing experience. It was a thrill.

Max Tegmark: They built a real camaraderie and respect for each other, and they wrote this report with five different sets of recommendations in different areas, including a moratorium on these things and all sorts of measures to reduce proliferation, and terrorism, and so on, and that made me feel more hopeful.

We got off to a great start I feel with our January 2019 Puerto Rico conference. This was the third one in a series where we brought together world leading AI researchers from academia, and industry, and other thinkers, to talk not about how to make AI more powerful, but how to make it beneficial. And what I was particularly excited about was that this was the first time when we also had a lot of people from China. So it wasn’t just this little western club, it felt much more global. It was very heartening to meet to see how well everybody got along and shared visions people really, really had. And I hope that if people who are actually building this stuff can all get along, can help spread this kind of constructive collaboration to the politicians and the political leaders in their various countries, we’ll all be much better off.

Anthony Aguirre: That felt really worthwhile in multiple aspects. One, just it was a great meeting getting together with this small, but really passionately positive, and smart, and well-intentioned, and friendly community. It’s so nice to get together with all those people, it’s very inspiring. But also, that out of that meeting came a whole bunch of ideas for very interesting and important projects. And so some of the things that I’ve been working on are projects that came out of that meeting, and there’s a whole long list of other projects that came out of that meeting, some of which some people are doing, some of which are just sitting, gathering dust, because there aren’t enough people to do them. That feels like really good news. It’s amazing when you get a group of smart people together to think in a way that hasn’t really been widely done before. Like, “Here’s the world 20 or 30 or 50 or 100 years from now, what are the things that we’re going to want to have happened in order for the world to be good then?”

Not many people sit around thinking that way very often. So to get 50 or 100 people who are really talented together thinking about that, it’s amazing how easy it is to come up with a set of really compelling things to do. Now actually getting those done, getting the people and the money and the time and the organization to get those done is a whole different thing. But that was really cool to see, because you can easily imagine things that have a big influence 10 or 15 years from now that were born right at that meeting.

Lucas Perry: Okay, so that hits on BAGI. So, were there any other policy-related things that you’ve done at FLI in 2019 that you’re really excited about?

Anthony Aguirre: It’s been really good to see, both at FLI and globally, the new and very serious attention being paid to AI policy and technology policy in general. We created the Asilomar principles back in 2017, and now two years later, there are multiple other sets of principles, many of which are overlapping and some of which aren’t. And more importantly, now institutions coming into being, international groups like the OECD, like the United Nations, the European Union, maybe someday the US government, actually taking seriously these sets of principles about how AI should be developed and deployed, so as to be beneficial.

There’s kind of now too much going on to keep track of, multiple bodies, conferences practically every week, so the FLI policy team has been kept busy just keeping track of what’s going on, and working hard to positively influence all these efforts that are going on. Because of course while there’s a lot going on, it doesn’t necessarily mean that there’s a huge amount of expertise that is available to feed those efforts. AI is relatively new on the world’s stage, at least at the size that it’s assuming. AI and policy expertise, that intersection, there just aren’t a huge number of people who are ready to give useful advice on the policy side and the technical side and what the ramifications are and so on.

So I think the fact that FLI has been there from the early days of AI policy five years ago, means that we have a lot to offer to these various efforts that are going on. I feel like we’ve been able to really positively contribute here and there, taking opportunistic chances to lend our help and our expertise to all kinds of efforts that are going on and doing real serious policy work. So that’s been really interesting to see that unfold and how rapidly these various efforts are gearing up around the world. I think that’s something that FLI can really do, bringing the technical expertise to make those discussions and arguments more sophisticated, so that we can really take it to the next step and try to get something done.

Max Tegmark: Another one which was very uplifting is this tradition we have to celebrate unsung heroes. So three years ago we celebrated the guy who prevented the world from getting nuked in 1962, Vasili Arkhipov. Two years ago, we celebrated the man who probably helped us avoid getting nuked in 1983, Stanislav Petrov. And this year we celebrated an American who I think has done more than anyone else to prevent all sorts of horrible things happening with bioweapons, Matthew Meselson from Harvard, who ultimately persuaded Kissinger, who persuaded Brezhnev and everyone else that we should just ban them. 

We celebrated them all by giving them or their survivors a $50,000 award and having a ceremony where we honored them, to remind the world of how valuable it is when you can just draw a clear, moral line between the right thing to do and the wrong thing to do. Even though we call this the Future of Life award officially, informally, I like to think of this as our unsung hero award, because there really aren’t awards particularly for people who prevented shit from happening. Almost all awards are for someone causing something to happen. Yet, obviously we wouldn’t be having this conversation if there’d been a global thermonuclear war. And it’s so easy to think that just because something didn’t happen, there’s not much to think about it. I’m hoping this can help create both a greater appreciation of how vulnerable we are as a species and the value of not being too sloppy. And also, that it can help foster a tradition that if someone does something that future generations really value, we actually celebrate them and reward them. I want us to have a norm in the world where people know that if they sacrifice themselves by doing something courageous, that future generations will really value, then they will actually get appreciation. And if they’re dead, their loved ones will get appreciation.

We now feel incredibly grateful that our world isn’t radioactive rubble, or that we don’t have to read about bioterrorism attacks in the news every day. And we should show our gratitude, because this sends a signal to people today who can prevent tomorrow’s catastrophes. And the reason I think of this as an unsung hero award, and the reason these people have been unsung heroes, is because what they did was often going a little bit against what they were supposed to do at the time, according to the little system they were in, right? Arkhipov and Petrov, neither of them got any medals for averting nuclear war because their peers either were a little bit pissed at them for violating protocol, or a little bit embarrassed that we’d almost had a war by mistake. And we want to send the signal to the kids out there today that, if push comes to shove, you got to go with your own moral principles.

Lucas Perry: Beautiful. What project directions are you most excited about moving in, in 2020 and beyond?

Anthony Aguirre: Along with the ones that I’ve already mentioned, something I’ve been involved with is Metaculus, this prediction platform, and the idea there is there are certain facts about the future world, and Metaculus is a way to predict probabilities for those facts being true about the future world. But they’re also facts about the current world, that we either don’t know whether they’re true or not or we disagree about whether they’re true or not. Something I’ve been thinking a lot about is how to extend the predictions of Metaculus into a general truth-seeking mechanism. If there’s something that’s contentious now, and people disagree about something that should be sort of a fact, can we come up with a reliable truth-seeking arbiter that people will believe, because it’s been right in the past, and it has very clear reliable track record for getting things right, in the same way that Metaculus has that record for getting predictions right?

So that’s something that interests me a lot, is kind of expanding that very strict level of accountability and track record creation from prediction to just truth-seeking. And I think that could be really valuable, because we’re entering this phase where people feel like they don’t know what’s true and facts are under contention. People simply don’t know what to believe. The institutions that they’re used to trusting to give them reliable information are either conflicting with each other or getting drowned in a sea of misinformation.

Lucas Perry: So, would this institution gain its credibility and epistemic status and respectability by taking positions on unresolved, yet concrete issues, which are likely to resolve in the short-term?

Anthony Aguirre: Or the not as short-term. But yeah, so just like in a prediction, where there might be disagreements as to what’s going to happen because nobody quite knows, and then at some point something happens and we all agree, “Oh, that happened, and some people were right and some people were wrong,” I think there are many propositions under contention now, but in a few years when the dust has settled and there’s not so much heat about them, everybody’s going to more or less agree on what the truth was.

And so I think, in a sense, this is about saying, “Here’s something that’s contentious now, let’s make a prediction about how that will turn out to be seen five or 10 or 15 years from now, when the dust has settled people more or less agree on how this was.”

I think there’s only so long that people can go without feeling like they can actually rely on some source of information. I mean, I do think that there is a reality out there, and ultimately you have to pay a price if you are not acting in accordance with what is true about that reality. You can’t indefinitely win by just denying the truth of the way that the world is. People seem to do pretty well for awhile, but I maintain my belief that eventually there will be a competitive advantage in understanding the way things actually are, rather than your fantasy of them.

We in the past did have trusted institutions that people generally listened to, and felt like I’m being told that basic truth. Now they weren’t always, and there were lots of problems with those institutions, but we’ve lost something, in that almost nobody trusts anything anymore at some level, and we have to get that back. We will solve this problem, I think, in the sense that we sort of have to. What that solution will look like is unclear, and this is sort of an effort to seek some way to kind of feel our way towards a potential solution to that.

Tucker Davey: I’m definitely excited to continue this work on our AI messaging and generally just continuing the discussion about advanced AI and artificial general intelligence within the FLI team and within the broader community, to get more consensus about what we believe and how we think we should approach these topics with different communities. And I’m also excited to see how our policy team continues to make more splashes across the world, because it’s really been exciting to watch how Jared and Jessica and Anthony have been able to talk with so many diverse shareholders and help them make better decisions about AI.

Jessica Cussins Newman: I’m most excited to see the further development of some of these global AI policy forums in 2020. For example, the OECD is establishing an AI policy observatory, which we’ll see further development on early in next year. And FLI is keen to support this initiative, and I think it may be a really meaningful forum for global coordination and cooperation on some of these key AI global challenges. So I’m really excited to see what they can achieve.

Jared Brown: I’m really looking forward to the opportunity the Future of Life has to lead the implementation of a recommendation related to artificial intelligence from the UN’s High-Level Panel on Digital Cooperation. This is a group that was led by Jack Ma and Melinda Gates, and they produced an extensive report that had many different recommendations on a range of digital or cyber issues, including one specifically on artificial intelligence. And because of our past work, we were invited to be a leader on the effort to implement and further refine the recommendation on artificial intelligence. And we’ll be able to do that with cooperation from the government of France, and Finland, and also with a UN agency called the UN Global Pulse. So I’m really excited about this opportunity to help lead a major project in the global governance arena, and to help actualize how some of these early soft law norms that have developed in AI policy can be developed for a better future.

I’m also excited about continuing to work with other civil society organizations, such as the Future of Humanity Institute, the Center for the Study of Existential Risk, other groups that are like-minded in their approach to tech issues. And helping to inform how we work on AI policy in a number of different governance spaces, including with the European Union, the OECD, and other environments where AI policy has suddenly become the topic du jour of interest to policy-makers.

Emilia Javorsky: Something that I’m really excited about is continuing to work on this issue of global engagement in the topic of lethal autonomous weapons, as I think this issue is heading in a very positive direction. By that I mean starting to move towards meaningful action. And really the only way we get to action on this issue is through education, because policy makers really need to understand what these systems are, what their risks are, and how AI differs from traditional other areas of technology that have really well established existing governance frameworks. So that’s something I’m really excited about for the next year. And this has been especially in the context of engaging with states at the United nations. So it’s really exciting to continue those efforts and continue to keep this issue on the radar.

Kirsten Gronlund: I’m super excited about our website redesign. I think that’s going to enable us to reach a lot more people and communicate more effectively, and obviously it will make my life a lot easier. So I think that’s going to be great.

Lucas Perry: I’m excited about that too. I think there’s a certain amount of a maintenance period that we need to kind of go through now, with regards to the website and a bunch of the pages, so that everything is refreshed and new and structured better. 

Kirsten Gronlund: Yeah, we just need like a little facelift. We are aware that the website right now is not super user friendly, and we are doing an incredibly in depth audit of the site to figure out, based on data, what’s working and what isn’t working, and how people would best be able to use the site to get the most out of the information that we have, because I think we have really great content, but the way that the site is organized is not super conducive to finding it, or using it.

So anyone who likes our site and our content but has trouble navigating or searching or anything: hopefully that will be getting a lot easier.

Ian Rusconi: I think I’d be interested in more conversations about ethics overall, and how ethical decision making is something that we need more of, as opposed to just economic decision making, and reasons for that with actual concrete examples. It’s one of the things that I find is a very common thread throughout almost all of the conversations that we have, but is rarely explicitly connected from one episode to another. And I think that there is some value in creating a conversational narrative about that. If we look at, say, the Not Cool Project, there are episodes about finance, and episodes about how the effects of what we’ve been doing to create global economy have created problems. And if we look at the AI Alignment Podcasts, there are concerns about how systems will work in the future, and who they will work for, and who benefits from things. And if you look at FLI’s main podcast, there are concerns about denuclearization, and lethal autonomous weapons, and things like that, and there are major ethical considerations to be had in all of these.

And I think that there’s benefit in taking all of these ethical considerations, and talking about them specifically outside of the context of the fields that they are in, just as a way of getting more people to think about ethics. Not in opposition to thinking about, say, economics, but just to get people thinking about ethics as a stand-alone thing, before trying to introduce how it’s relevant to something. I think if more people thought about ethics, we would have a lot less problems than we do.

Lucas Perry: Yeah, I would be interested in that too. I would first want to know empirically how much of the decisions that the average human being makes a day are actually informed by “ethical decision making,” which I guess my intuition at the moment is probably not that much?

Ian Rusconi: Yeah, I don’t know how much ethics plays into my autopilot-type decisions. I would assume. Probably not very much.

Lucas Perry: Yeah. We think about ethics explicitly a lot. I think that that definitely shapes my terminal values. But yeah, I don’t know, I feel confused about this. I don’t know how much of my moment to moment lived experience and decision making is directly born of ethical decision making. So I would be interested in that too, with that framing that I would first want to know the kinds of decision making faculties that we have, and how often each one is employed, and the extent to which improving explicit ethical decision making would help in making people more moral in general.

Ian Rusconi: Yeah, I could absolutely get behind that.

Max Tegmark: What I find also to be a concerning trend, and a predictable one, is that just like we had a lot of greenwashing in the corporate sector about environmental and climate issues, where people would pretend to care about the issues just so they didn’t really have to do much, we’re seeing a lot of what I like to call “ethics washing” now in AI, where people say, “Yeah, yeah. Okay, let’s talk about AI ethics now, like an ethics committee, and blah, blah, blah, but let’s not have any rules or regulations, or anything. We can handle this because we’re so ethical.” And interestingly, the very same people who talk the loudest about ethics are often among the ones who are the most dismissive about the bigger risks from human level AI, and beyond. And also the ones who don’t want to talk about malicious use of AI, right? They’ll be like, “Oh yeah, let’s just make sure that robots and AI systems are ethical and do exactly what they’re told,” but they don’t want to discuss what happens when some country, or some army, or some terrorist group has such systems, and tells them to do things that are horrible for other people. That’s an elephant in the room we are looking forward to help draw more attention to, I think, in the coming year. 

And what I also feel is absolutely crucial here is to avoid splintering the planet again, into basically an eastern and a western zone of dominance that just don’t talk to each other. Trade is down between China and the West. China has its great firewall, so they don’t see much of our internet, and we also don’t see much of their internet. It’s becoming harder and harder for students to come here from China because of visas, and there’s sort of a partitioning into two different spheres of influence. And as I said before, this is a technology which could easily make everybody a hundred times better or richer, and so on. You can imagine many futures where countries just really respect each other’s borders, and everybody can flourish. Yet, major political leaders are acting like this is some sort of zero-sum game. 

I feel that this is one of the most important things to help people understand that, no, it’s not like we have a fixed amount of money or resources to divvy up. If we can avoid very disruptive conflicts, we can all have the future of our dreams.

Lucas Perry: Wonderful. I think this is a good place to end on that point. So, what are reasons that you see for existential hope, going into 2020 and beyond?

Jessica Cussins Newman: I have hope for the future because I have seen this trend where it’s no longer a fringe issue to talk about technology ethics and governance. And I think that used to be the case not so long ago. So it’s heartening that so many people and institutions, from engineers all the way up to nation states, are really taking these issues seriously now. I think that momentum is growing, and I think we’ll see engagement from even more people and more countries in the future.

I would just add that it’s a joy to work with FLI, because it’s an incredibly passionate team, and everybody has a million things going on, and still gives their all to this work and these projects. I think what unites us is that we all think these are some of the most important issues of our time, and so it’s really a pleasure to work with such a dedicated team.

Lucas Perry:  Wonderful.

Jared Brown: As many of the listeners will probably realize, governments across the world have really woken up to this thing called artificial intelligence, and what it means for civil society, their governments, and the future really of humanity. And I’ve been surprised, frankly, over the past year, about how many of the new national, and international strategies, the new principles, and so forth are actually quite aware of both the potential benefits but also the real safety risks associated with AI. And frankly, this time this year, last year, I wouldn’t have thought as many principles would have come out, that there’s a lot of positive work in those principles, there’s a lot of serious thought about the future of where this technology is going. And so, on the whole, I think the picture is much better than what most people might expect in terms of the level of high-level thinking that’s going on in policy-making about AI, its benefits, and its risks going forward. And so on that score, I’m quite hopeful that there’s a lot of positive soft norms to work from. And hopefully we can work to implement those ideas and concepts going forward in real policy.

Lucas Perry: Awesome.

Emilia Javorsky: I am optimistic, and it comes from having had a lot of these conversations, specifically this past year, on lethal autonomous weapons, and speaking with people from a range of views and being able to sit down, coming together, having a rational and respectful discussion, and identifying actionable areas of consensus. That has been something that has been very heartening for me, because there is just so much positive potential for humanity waiting on the science and technology shelves of today, nevermind what’s in the pipeline that’s coming up. And I think that despite all of this tribalism and hyperbole that we’re bombarded with in the media every day, there are ways to work together as a society, and as a global community, and just with each other to make sure that we realize all that positive potential, and I think that sometimes gets lost. I’m optimistic that we can make that happen and that we can find a path forward on restoring that kind of rational discourse and working together.

Tucker Davey: I think my main reasons for existential hope in 2020 and beyond are, first of all, seeing how many more people are getting involved in AI safety, in effective altruism, and existential risk mitigation. It’s really great to see the community growing, and I think just by having more people involved, that’s a huge step. As a broader existential hope, I am very interested in thinking about how we can better coordinate to collectively solve a lot of our civilizational problems, and to that end, I’m interested in ways where we can better communicate about our shared goals on certain issues, ways that we can more credibly commit to action on certain things. So these ideas of credible commitment mechanisms, whether that’s using advanced technology like blockchain or whether that’s just smarter ways to get people to commit to certain actions, I think there’s a lot of existential hope for bigger groups in society coming together and collectively coordinating to make systemic change happen.

I see a lot of potential for society to organize mass movements to address some of the biggest risks that we face. For example, I think it was last year, an AI researcher, Toby Walsh, who we’ve worked with, he organized a boycott against a South Korean company that was working to develop these autonomous weapons. And within a day or two, I think, he contacted a bunch of AI researchers and they signed a pledge to boycott this group until they decided to ditch the project. And the boycotts succeeded basically within two days. And I think that’s one good example of the power of boycotts, and the power of coordination and cooperation to address our shared goals. So if we can learn lessons from Toby Walsh’s boycott, as well as from the fossil fuel and nuclear divestment movements, I think we can start to realize some of our potential to push these big industries in more beneficial directions.

So whether it’s the fossil fuel industry, the nuclear weapons industry, or the AI industry, as a collective, we have a lot of power to use stigma to push these companies in better directions. No company or industry wants bad press. And if we get a bunch of researchers together to agree that a company’s doing some sort of bad practice, and then we can credibly say that, “Look, you guys will get bad press if you guys don’t change your strategy,” many of these companies might start to change their strategy. And I think if we can better coordinate and organize certain movements and boycotts to get different companies and industries to change their practices, that’s a huge source of existential hope moving forward.

Lucas Perry: Yeah. I mean, it seems like the point that you’re trying to articulate is that there are particular instances like this thing that happened with Toby Walsh that show you the efficacy of collective action around our issues.

Tucker Davey: Yeah. I think there’s a lot more agreement on certain shared goals such,as we don’t want banks investing in fossil fuels, or we don’t want AI companies developing weapons that can make targeted kill decisions without human intervention. And if we take some of these broad shared goals and then we develop some sort of plan to basically pressure these companies to change their ways or to adopt better safety measures, I think these sorts of collective action can be very effective. And I think as a broader community, especially with more people in the community, we have much more of a possibility to make this happen.

So I think I see a lot of existential hope from these collective movements to push industries in more beneficial directions, because they can really help us, as individuals, feel more of a sense of agency that we can actually do something to address these risks.

Kirsten Gronlund: I feel like there’s actually been a pretty marked difference in the way that people are reacting to… at least things like climate change, and I sort of feel like more generally, there’s sort of more awareness just of the precariousness of humanity, and the fact that our continued existence and success on this planet is not a given, and we have to actually work to make sure that those things happen. Which is scary, and kind of exhausting, but I think is ultimately a really good thing, the fact that people seem to be realizing that this is a moment where we actually have to act and we have to get our shit together. We have to work together and this isn’t about politics, this isn’t about, I mean it shouldn’t be about money. I think people are starting to figure that out, and it feels like that has really become more pronounced as of late. I think especially younger generations, like obviously there’s Greta Thunberg and the youth movement on these issues. It seems like the people who are growing up now are so much more aware of things than I certainly was at that age, and that’s been cool to see, I think. They’re better than we were, and hopefully things in general are getting better.

Lucas Perry: Awesome.

Ian Rusconi: I think it’s often easier for a lot of us to feel hopeless than it is to feel hopeful. Most of the news that we get comes in the form of warnings, or the existing problems, or the latest catastrophe, and it can be hard to find a sense of agency as an individual when talking about huge global issues like lethal autonomous weapons, or climate change, or runaway AI.

People frame little issues that add up to bigger ones as things like death by 1,000 bee stings, or the straw that broke the camel’s back, and things like that, but that concept works both ways. 1,000 individual steps in a positive direction can change things for the better. And working on these podcasts has shown me the number of people taking those steps. People working on AI safety, international weapons bans, climate change mitigation efforts. There are whole fields of work, absolutely critical work, that so many people, I think, probably know nothing about. Certainly that I knew nothing about. And sometimes, knowing that there are people pulling for us, that’s all we need to be hopeful. 

And beyond that, once you know that work exists and that people are doing it, nothing is stopping you from getting informed and helping to make a difference. 

Kirsten Gronlund: I had a conversation with somebody recently who is super interested in these issues, but was feeling like they just didn’t have particularly relevant knowledge or skills. And what I would say is “neither did I when I started working for FLI,” or at least I didn’t know a lot about these specific issues. But really anyone, if you care about these things, you can bring whatever skills you have to the table, because we need all the help we can get. So don’t be intimidated, and get involved.

Ian Rusconi: I guess I think that’s one of my goals for the podcast, is that it inspires people to do better, which I think it does. And that sort of thing gives me hope.

Lucas Perry: That’s great. I feel happy to hear that, in general.

Max Tegmark: Let me first give a more practical reason for hope, and then get a little philosophical. So on the practical side, there are a lot of really good ideas that the AI community is quite unanimous about, in terms of policy and things that need to happen, that basically aren’t happening because policy makers and political leaders don’t get it yet. And I’m optimistic that we can get a lot of that stuff implemented, even though policy makers won’t pay attention now. If we get AI researchers around the world to formulate and articulate really concrete proposals and plans for policies that should be enacted, and they get totally ignored for a while? That’s fine, because eventually some bad stuff is going to happen because people weren’t listening to their advice. And whenever those bad things do happen, then leaders will be forced to listen because people will be going, “Wait, what are you going to do about this?” And if at that point, there are broad international consensus plans worked out by experts about what should be done, that’s when they actually get implemented. So the hopeful message I have to anyone working in AI policy is: don’t despair if you’re being ignored right now, keep doing all the good work and flesh out the solutions, and start building consensus for it among the experts, and there will be a time people will listen to you. 

To just end on a more philosophical note, again, I think it’s really inspiring to think how much impact intelligence has had on life so far. We realize that we’ve already completely transformed our planet with intelligence. If we can use artificial intelligence to amplify our intelligence, it will empower us to solve all the problems that we’re stumped by thus far, including curing all the diseases that kill our near and dear today. And for those so minded, even help life spread into the cosmos. Not even the sky is the limit, and the decisions about how this is going to go are going to be made within the coming decades, so within the lifetime of most people who are listening to this. There’s never been a more exciting moment to think about grand, positive visions for the future. That’s why I’m so honored and excited to get to work with the Future Life Institute.

Anthony Aguirre: Just like disasters, I think big positive changes can arise with relatively little warning and then seem inevitable in retrospect. I really believe that people are actually wanting and yearning for a society and a future that gives them fulfillment and meaning, and that functions and works for people.

There’s a lot of talk in the AI circles about how to define intelligence, and defining intelligence as the ability to achieve one’s goals. And I do kind of believe that for all its faults, humanity is relatively intelligent as a whole. We can be kind of foolish, but I think we’re not totally incompetent at getting what we are yearning for, and what we are yearning for is a kind of just and supportive and beneficial society that we can exist in. Although there are all these ways in which the dynamics of things that we’ve set up are going awry in all kinds of ways, and people’s own self-interest fighting it out with the self-interest of others is making things go terribly wrong, I do nonetheless see lots of people who are putting interesting, passionate effort forward toward making a better society. I don’t know that that’s going to turn out to be the force that prevails, I just hope that it is, and I think it’s not time to despair.

There’s a little bit of a selection effect in the people that you encounter through something like the Future of Life Institute, but there are a lot of people out there who genuinely are trying to work toward a vision of some better future, and that’s inspiring to see. It’s easy to focus on the differences in goals, because it seems like different factions that people want totally different things. But I think that belies the fact that there are lots of commonalities that we just kind of take for granted, and accept, and brush under the rug. Putting more focus on those and focusing the effort on, “given that we can all agree that we want these things and let’s have an actual discussion about what is the best way to get those things,” that’s something that there’s sort of an answer to, in the sense that we might disagree on what our preferences are, but once we have the set of preferences we agree on, there’s kind of the correct or more correct set of answers to how to get those preferences satisfied. We actually are probably getting better, we can get better, this is an intellectual problem in some sense and a technical problem that we can solve. There’s plenty of room for progress that we can all get behind.

Again, strong selection effect. But when I think about the people that I interact with regularly through the Future of Life Institute and other organizations that I work as a part of, they’re almost universally highly-effective, intelligent, careful-thinking, well-informed, helpful, easy to get along with, cooperative people. And it’s not impossible to create or imagine a society where that’s just a lot more widespread, right? It’s really enjoyable. There’s no reason that the world can’t be more or less dominated by such people.

As economic opportunity grows and education grows and everything, there’s no reason to see that that can’t grow also, in the same way that non-violence has grown. It used to be a part of everyday life for pretty much everybody, now many people I know go through many years without having any violence perpetrated on them or vice versa. We still live in a sort of overall, somewhat violent society, but nothing like what it used to be. And that’s largely because of the creation of wealth and institutions and all these things that make it unnecessary and impossible to have that as part of everybody’s everyday life.

And there’s no reason that can’t happen in most other domains, I think it is happening. I think almost anything is possible. It’s amazing how far we’ve come, and I see no reason to think that there’s some hard limit on how far we go.

Lucas Perry: So I’m hopeful for the new year simply because in areas that are important, I think things are on average getting better than they are getting worse. And it seems to be that much of what causes pessimism is perception that things are getting worse, or that we have these strange nostalgias for past times that we believe to be better than the present moment.

This isn’t new thinking, and is much in line with what Steven Pinker has said, but I feel that when we look at the facts about things like poverty, or knowledge, or global health, or education, or even the conversation surrounding AI alignment and existential risk, that things really are getting better, and that generally the extent to which it seems like it isn’t or that things are getting worse can be seen in many cases as our trend towards more information causing the perception that things are getting worse. But really, we are shining a light on everything that is already bad or we are coming up with new solutions to problems which generate new problems in and of themselves. And I think that this trend towards elucidating all of the problems which already exist, or through which we develop technologies and come to new solutions, which generate their own novel problems, this can seem scary as all of these bad things continue to come up, it seems almost never ending.

But they seem to me more now like revealed opportunities for growth and evolution of human civilization to new heights. We are clearly not at the pinnacle of life or existence or wellbeing, so as we encounter and generate and uncover more and more issues, I find hope in the fact that we can rest assured that we are actively engaged in the process of self-growth as a species. Without encountering new problems about ourselves, we are surely stagnating and risk decline. However, it seems that as we continue to find suffering and confusion and evil in the world and to notice how our new technologies and skills may contribute to these things, we have an opportunity to act upon remedying them and then we can know that we are still growing and that, that is a good thing. And so I think that there’s hope in the fact that we’ve continued to encounter new problems because it means that we continue to grow better. And that seems like a clearly good thing to me.

And with that, thanks so much for tuning into this Year In The Review Podcast on our activities and team as well as our feelings about existential hope moving forward. If you’re a regular listener, we want to share our deepest thanks for being a part of this conversation and thinking about these most fascinating and important of topics. And if you’re a new listener, we hope that you’ll continue to join us in our conversations about how to solve the world’s most pressing problems around existential risks and building a beautiful future for all. Many well and warm wishes for a happy and healthy end of the year for everyone listening from the Future of Life Institute team. If you find this podcast interesting, valuable, unique, or positive, consider sharing it with friends and following us on your preferred listening platform. You can find links for that on the pages for these podcasts found at futureoflife.org.